(Bloomberg) -- Namibia’s government has warned that the nation’s water, energy and food security is under threat because some of its main rivers have run dry due to drought and its upstream neighbors diverting supplies.

“As we speak, the Orange river has dried up, the Kunene river has no water,” Calle Schlettwein, the  water minister, told lawmakers  in Windhoek, the capital, on Thursday. “Our reliability on trans-boundary water is a serious risk.”

Positioned between the Namib and Kalahari deserts, Namibia has sub-Saharan Africa’s most arid climate and has unpredictable rainfall and high evaporation rates, resulting in a water deficit. The country shares borders with Angola, Botswana, Zambia and South Africa.

Perennial rivers that run along the country’s northern and southern borders are far away from Windhoek and most of the other main towns, while challenges in distributing limited and unreliable supplies of ground water are exacerbated by the fact that the sparse population is widely spread out. 

‘Aggressive Approach’

The country will need to take an “aggressive approach” in talks with its neighbors to ensure it gets its fair share of water from shared rivers, Schlettwein said. “At the moment we are vulnerable.” 

Windhoek and the surrounding areas of central Namibia have been worst affected by the latest water shortages and the authorities have been battling to meet demand. 

Supply to the city has been supplemented by tapping a deep underground aquifer and the government also plan to link dams situated in the south of the country to the central areas, but costs are an issue, according to Schlettwein.

The lack of water in the Kunene river has also curbed electricity supply, curbing output from the Ruacana hydropower plant, he said. 

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